Scientific and Research Culture in Iran

Although Taylor defines culture as a complex whole (complicated collection) composed of knowledges ,opinions ,moralities ,rules ,traditions ,and any habits & capabilities gained by people (Hoeklin,L.,p.26) ,but its accepted definition in sociology ,as a major &essential approach to analyst relationships between culture & research in Iran , is“ the methods that maintain by members of a group or a given society ,follow a series of harmony and produce material products . Concepts like normal activities of mentality such as art , literature ,music and painting which in routine life are considered as culture ,in sociology have more minor concepts „ (Giddens ,A.,p.31).
Considering two above-mentioned definitions and recognition of a construct such as culture that its objective degree is very extent, it must be said that in this analysis, research and culture have a general (ultra-sector) nature ;expend in all fields of pure and applied sciences and present in different parts of economy , society and culture .Therefore in order to study all of the aspects of this subject and relations between these two phenomena ,we should survey these two concepts in the line of more operation in construct such as culture with emphasis on research section to reveal its dull points ,latent aspects and the unsaid sides .
It is obvious that in order to avoid reductionism and one-sided attitudes ,we should act so that all of the existing factors in the field of research culture in Iran to be considered .Thus we will able to study research culture from various aspects such as religious ,politics ,law ,economy ,structure ,language ,wisdom , education & management and to recognize weak and strong points at each aspects .
It is clear that with such effort ,the possibility of comprehensive and objective attitudes in this study will be increased .A ) Weak points :
1 .Weakness and cultural pathologic problems which exist within research structures from the religious perspective, includes:Imitation approaches and accept what exists as eternal fate and rely on apriori.Turning over halos of holiness and creating ancient and vain taboos on natural &human-social phenomena and avoiding of any critical and inquisitive approach to objective recognition of those phenomena .Hegemony of stereotypes in thoughts of national research and to induce imposed approaches on phenomena and inflexibility in according to their conceptual & cognitional frameworks with human-social & environmental phenomena and other knowledge problems .Weakness in effort and prospecting and indefatigability in exploring the facts due to a kind of dependence on scatology (better world) and unified unworldly .
2 . Political aspects :Individuality ,weakness of social trust and suspicion due to despotism and confront to any kind of activity which needs to more than two persons , same as historic-cultural heritage .Disappearances and concealment preventing in express opinions ,ideas and views by the speculators and scholars which is due to govern of fear and intimidation atmosphere and lack of tolerance of intellectuals ,thoughts in political government in Iran during the history .
3 . Legal aspects :Spread of a scientific abnormality among researchers and thoughtful and showing unacceptable and immoralable reactions in scientific &research centers such as citation without reference ,spoiling each other and disclaiming of facts &etc .Dominance of relation instead of rule in research process and in supply and demand market of research products ,Weakness or lack of attention to special rules and regulations of research to cultural & considerations essentials of science ,technology and researches in country and relative vacuum of cultural guidelines in approving the rules .
4. Economic aspects :The effect of (consumtional) characteristic in science and technology due to consumption inclination governing on structure of general culture in country & rely on absorbing of scientific achievements & products without understanding of their genesis process.Weakness in producing scientific & technical knowledge in country due to cultural rentals without any effect to create & produce ideas .Predominance of money making & priority of financial benefits during research process instead of Homo- social advantages from global &national research (“money is first” instead of “manifest” ).Weakness in the communalism of scientific and research achievements & sources and consequently lack of optimistic use of these sources in one hand , and personalizing scientific investments of individuals in the process of research and innovation by some researchers (Mohseni,M.,pp.82-6) .
5 .Media aspects:Weakness in optimistic use of modern cultural instruments & industries such as computer ,television ,radio ,video & press to spread scientific culture and search spirit .
6 .Structural ,organizational & management aspects:
Lack of differentiation of structures and roles in scientific and technical structures for research and ambiguity of real researcher’s status and undefinition of major responsible in research and scientific culture in country .In the other words inefficient and altered work division is due to lack of recognitional differentiation in thoughts of decision makers( Smelser,N.,p.120 ) .
Ambiguity in scoring the scientific activities and spread of ambivalence among researchers and above all in general culture and lack of an definitive answer for the usual question ; “Which of them are better: science or wealth ”?
Abnormality and lack of a dynamic sustainable and organic structure in science and research cultural in country and undefinition of strategies ,expectations & goals in this field .Mixing of socio-economic status of researchers & lack of suitable place for study ,science & scholarship in comparison of good condition of living for them in society and its negative reflection in researchers opinions & finally spread of business in investigations and corruption of science &research in country specially at scientific communities .
Weakness in deep belief of political ,administrative and economic management to importance of research & scientific and technologic findings in partial & macro development of Iran .
Predominance of static organizational and sometimes decadent administrative culture in scientific organizations and active presence of short-minded ,comfort-loving ,dogmatic and abnormal persons in scientific and research environment and corruption of investigation atmosphere .
Weakness of meritocracy and specialization in selections of scientific management in Iran and operation assessment of them without existing the competent & meritocracy functions in country for revising of its methods .
Prevalence of governmental thoughts in scientific organizations & management of Iran ,so that it is non-economic ,expensive ,massive but with little containing and there is monopolism in making of scientific and technical backgrounds specially for governmental section and weakness in participation of non-governmental organizations in science ,technology and research .
Weakness in considering the future in researches and routine affliction in researches accomplishments in IranWeakness of motivating cultural characteristics in research and scientific-technical activities in Iran as well as appreciation of creativeness ,facility in registration of inventions & innovations and acceleration in suggestion ,financial approve and protection process of research projects (pure or applied ) for doing .
Weakness in research attitude among managers of science and research organizations in Iran to use research tools among human resources ,marketing and scientific management in research and science activities .
7 . Linguistics aspects :
Semantics gaps between scientific and daily language and unsuitability of concepts ,interpretation and equivalent making for scientific vocabulary & terminology between people .Semantics gaps of scientific language within scientific society of Iran with contemporary scientific language due to weak understanding of scientific product processes .
Weakness of scientific discourses in Iran and dialectic nature in discussion ,criticism &explanation of attitudes and theoretic & technical achievements in scientific society and relative avoidance of facing researchers with each others .8 . Spiritual aspects :Weakness in spirit and ethics of searching and questioning problem definition as a scientific nature in general culture of Iran .
Weakness in collective working spirit and believe to collective production and its values in comparison with individualism (Hofstedt,G.,p.34) .
Weakness in reliance of knowledge system of some scientific organization’s managers and researchers to postpriori assumptions and post experience and inclination to rely on subjective , eternal and apriori propositions in contact with phenomena and decision makings .
Consciousness or unconsciousness predominance of biases (prejudices) in research processes and weakness of objectivity in research special in Homo-social fields .
Weakness in scientific logic and skepticism in researcher’s thoughts (Mohseni,M.,p.84) .
Weakness in making scientific patterns for scientific attitudes and behaviors of past & present researchers in Iran .Predetermined (stereotype ) contact with many historical phenomena , persons ,trends and currents Homo-social phenomena in contemporary society and weakness to achieve scientific attitudes .
Weakness in spreading system approach in order to study and explanation of problems ,phenomena and relationships among them and general inclination to reductionism in research .
B ) Strong points :
Although in neutral (unprejudiced) studies ,it should be tried to analyze the issue condition from its strong to weak points, but in present study the extension of pathological problems of scientific and research culture in Iran has been given much more than its capabilities and potentials .There are two reasons for this: first due to predominance of problematic attitude in this study , and the second reason is weakness of historical and present backgrounds of scientific and research capabilities and potentialities in Iran .These reasons ,however, will be reinforced by necessities of more capacities and scientific structures and inclination to development of research system in Iran .It is clear that in this part ,many subjects will be mentioned as potentialities that can be considered in making a cultural backgrounds process for their recreation ,coincidence and efficiency
.1 . Religious aspect :
Existing of research ,prospecting ,recognition of history and geography and also deep thinking (wisdom) on natural and human phenomena in religious texts .Relative existence of skilled researchers for identification of religious and irreligious images and propositions .Existence of considerable suggestion about attention to the world and its facts as a tool for otherworldly happiness in religious texts .
Existence of scientific & religious patterns to spread prospecting culture to discover facts whether in religious history or among contemporary religious pensive .
2 . Political aspects :
Existence of foreign quarrelsome and national-tribal self confidence and application of this plan to spread and reinforce of thoughts and science-research efforts (Tayefi,A.,3, pp.37-44) .
Existence of collective approaches and movements in contemporary history and use of them in making of patterns for team working culture and its valuable creations .
3 . Legal aspects :
Existence of modification ,revision and adaptation conditions of special rules or principles related to scientific & research culture in country and its coordination with scientific culture in the world .
Existence of preparative conditions for legal mechanisms in reward system ,salary system ,legal system related to scientific and research activities in respect to spreading suitable cultural characters and avoiding to break its customs and traditions .
4 . Economic aspects :
To be contented in consumption during cultural planning to increase value added and decrease costs and propagation of this method in the process of research and producing of science and technology in country .
5 . Instrumental aspects :
Existence of national scientific features in past and present time to give a best patterns in science and research culture and its propagation .
Existence of thematic capabilities ,researchers , investigated findings ,technology of audio-video education ,science and research publications in present world to apply for cultural industries in country .
Existence of corporations in publication ,research and producing scientific and research programs in country .Existence of suitable informative ,educational & cultural industries for more investments in science and culture .
6 . Structural ,organizational & management aspects :
Presence of some competent ,tycoon and capable managers for making job patterns in scientific management arena .
Existence of domestic and foreign experiences for improvements of organization and formation activities about science and research for cultural organizations of research structure in country .
Presence of Iranian experts and specialists who are global for establishing modern science ,research and management structures .
Presence of researchers ,experiences and specialized persons and intellectuals out of country to consult with them about improving and organizing the existing condition of science ,technology and research in country .
7 . Linguistic aspect :
Presence of skilled scientific linguistics to produce correct ,fluent and flexible equivalents for scientific societies and their addresses .
Capability of Persian language to innovate various and extensive vocabulary to cover scientific and technical idioms and interpretations in present world .
Existence of several scientific academies to organize semantic processes of scientific language .
8 . Spiritual aspects :
Existence of ideas and scientific-historical features and at present time to create patterns for scientific culture in the fields of searching , organized doubts ,scientific belief and systematic and objective thinking .

Existence of flexibility and preparation of accepting ideas , scientific and cultural spirits among researchers and students of Iran .
Giddens,A.; Sociology;1994 Hofstedt,G.; Culture & Organization ;1992 Hoecklin,L.; Managing of Cultural Differences;1996 Mohseni,M.; Sociology of Science(persian) ;1996 Smelser,N.; Evaluating The Model of Structural Differentiation In Relation To Educational Change In The 19th Century ;1985 Tayefi,A.& others; Critical Analysis & Modification Suggestions in Research Section (persian) ; 1998 Tayefi,A.;Cultural Development In human Resources Development(persian) ;1996 Tayefi,A; Cultual Obstacles Of Development in Iran (persian);1992

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